Interferon Alfa-2B, Favipiravir, and antibodies are the real hope. WHO moves with the mega trial for promising treatments, but unsolved entanglements make complexities.
Around the globe, scientists are sharpening their minds with clinical research data and analysis to secure a position in the drug and vaccine development race. Some of the countries like China, USA, France, Israel, Cuba, South Korea, India, and Australia reported the tested data with some positive and negative results.
The 7th generation coronavirus identified as SARS-nCoV-2 with spikes easily attaches to our cell proteins starts infection and takes over the control of cells and tissues.
Several medicines and combinations of chemicals have been tested to control the pandemic based on previous knowledge. Accordingly, some medicines have been used for clinical trials. Based on clinical data, the World Health Organization (WHO) concludes to focus on a few drugs for mega trial (global trial) toward the promising treatment. The details of the SOLIDARITY test and collection of data will be used to optimize the treatments.
- Remdesivir – Anti-viral drug [Ebola virus]
- Chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine – Anti-malarial drug
- Lopinavir and ritonavir – Anti-viral drug [Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)]
- Lopinavir/ritonavir and Interferon-beta (Immune system messenger)
However, countries are continuously trying on other drugs for clinical trials, which have shown good efficacy.
China and Japan run a clinical trial phase of favipiravir, which implied highly encouraging results but requires further attention to consolidating.
Favipiravir – Japanese flu drug
– Coronavirus treatment race sees Fujifilm drug emerge as a promising underdog
– Research in China finds anti-viral drug Favipiravir effective in treating coronavirus
– Japanese flu drug ‘clearly effective’ in treating coronavirus, says China
China, along with Cuba, tested Interferon Alfa-2B, which has proven efficient in coronavirus treatment. However, it still needs more data to prove scientifically the same. However, more than 45 countries are interested in using this drug for the treatment.
Interferon Alfa-2B – Anti-viral drug – HIV, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis B and C
Indian medical doctors at Sawaj Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, tested the combination of HIV drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir), anti-malarial drugs (chloroquine) and swine flu treatment (oseltamivir). However, to scientifically establish the combination, they too need more clinical trials.
Similarly, researchers from the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, reported promising results in the human test with the combination of the anti-malarial drug (chloroquine) and HIV drug (lopinavir/ritonavir). Currently, they are working on large pharmaceutical trials to confirm the activity of the drug.
Iranian pharmaceutical composition results in successful treatment for coronavirus patients based on pulmonary dysfunction cure. The composition was used with other medications like azithromycin, prednisolone, and naproxen. However, there was no disclosure about the composition. Also, they stated that “Iran would be publicly announced the herbal medicines in a week for coronavirus treatment.”
Very recently, French researchers came up with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for effectively treating patients with coronavirus.
“We confirm the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine associated with azithromycin in the treatment of COVID-19 and its potential effectiveness in the early impairment of contagiousness” – French researchers
It is essential to look at the recovered patients based on the different treatments like a basic anti-viral drug, herbal medicines, supplements, auto-immune system repairment. Because they have developed their immune function against the SARS-nCoV-2.
China is the nation with a high number of recovered patients. The blood plasma from the recovered patients were collected to analyze the antibodies, which functioned against the virus. The identification of antibodies could be useful for the treatment, according to China’s National Health Commission.
Cytokine storm syndrome
The critical study revealed that the immune system goes out of control during the function against the contagion. Such an overreaction is termed as a cytokine storm. In history, 1918 flu pandemic, H5N1 bird flu, and 2003 SARS had a similar pattern.
The excessive immune response leads to vulnerability for other problems like multi-organ failure. This condition makes the situation more complex to identify the right medicine.
Mutation and recombination
Researchers in China identified that mutation and recombination of SARS-nCoV-2 results in variations of the spikes in the shell. Results published from the preliminary study of strain analysis suggest that 70% of these were aggressive, and 30% were less aggressive. The outcome strongly indicated to consider more genomic and epidemiological data along with the clinical symptoms of patients for the successive development of medicines.
There are several questions underpin with the mystery of 7th gen coronavirus.
- Why do some people get affected severely by coronavirus?
- What kind of immune system helps children to step away from coronavirus?
- Do antibodies help to destroy coronavirus?
- What are the key factors for Cytokine storm syndrome?
- Mutation of coronavirus?
- Identification of SARS-nCOV-2 antibody?
- Do treatments for other diseases disturb the SARS-nCoV-2?
“A large trial with a greater variety of patients is warranted” – WHO
Researchers around the world are working hard to accomplish the challenging task of drug or medicine identification for SARS-nCoV-2.
All the countries must provide transparent clinical data to help their efforts. Also, WHO or any organization must ensure the security and accessibility of the clinical data to all the scientists for further studies without any racism.
We all believe this situation would be overcome soon to start our geopolitics.